Version 2#


v2.2.1: Minimum offset#


  • Minimum offset:

    Change regarding the enforced minimum horizontal offset, which can be set through empymod.set_minimum(min_off=1e-3), where 1e-3, hence 1 mm, is the default. Until now, responses for smaller offsets were set to NaN. New, they return the response for the minimum offset. The raised warning stays the same.

  • Maintenance

    • Exclude scipy!=v1.9.0 from MacOS/Windows test.

    • Replace pytest-flake8 by plain flake8.

    • Change the way spacing and shift are calculated in fdesign.print_result to avoid numerical precision issues.

    • Replace deprecated sphinx-panels with sphinx-design.

v2.2.0: I/O & CLI#


  • I/O & CLI:

    • New Command-Line Interface (CLI) for the top-level modelling functions bipole, dipole, loop, and analytical. Consult the manual for its description, or type in your terminal empymod --help. Note that the CLI is a simple wrapper and currently lacks proper logging.

    • New module io to save and load inputs and data.

  • Maintenance:

    • Improved load time by lazy-loading matplotlib and some scipy submodules.

    • Removed the file; uses make instead.


v2.1.4: Squeeze#


  • The main modelling routines bipole, dipole, loop, and analytical take a new keyword argument squeeze, which is set to True by default. If true, the output is squeezed (status quo); if false, the output is always a three-dimensional array (nfreqtime, nrec, nsrc).

  • One can define new +np.infty as interface. Only use-case is to enforce a coordinate system in a two-layer case with an interface at z (see example coordinate system in the educational section of the gallery).

  • Documentation:

    • Expanded note on FFTLog.

    • Expanded note on coordinate system.

    • Changed the description from optional to default: xyz in the main modelling routines.

  • Maintenance:

    • Use scipy through conda in CI.

    • Fix do_3d_projection for matplotlib>3.5.0.

v2.1.3: Random noise example#


  • New example: Random noise for f-domain CSEM data.

  • Maintenance:

    • Change in the njit-settings of kernel.wavenumber to work with numba>=0.54.

    • Cannot use matplotlib==3.5.0 to build the gallery (matplotlib#21688).

    • Move up the minimum matplotlib in the tests.

    • Added a Cron-job to run the tests monthly; every 20th at 14:14.

v2.1.2: Bugfix np.seterr(all=’ignore’)#


  • Bumped the minimum requirements to:

    • Python 3.7

    • NumPy 1.17

    • SciPy 1.4

    • Numba 0.47

  • Legacy clean-up: The kernel of empymod used to switch off all NumPy errors via np.seterr(all='ignore'). That means that any script or library that used empymod switched off all warnings from NumPy, which is not good. Since empymod v2 this does make even less sense, as the entire kernel is jitted with numba. This setting is therefore removed.

v2.1.1: Bugfix azm/dip broadcasting#


  • Bugfix in empymod.bipole and empymod.loop when using various azimuths and dips (some cases used to cause a shape-mismatch error).

v2.1.0: Theme change & streamline#


  • Streamline some things with emsig and emg3d:

    • Change theme from rtd to pydata.

    • New primary links and

    • Move copyright from «The empymod Developers» to «The emsig community».

    • Slight rework of some parts of the docs.


v2.0.6: Bugfix Windows int32/64#


  • Bugfix Windows int32/64.

  • New example “Magnetotelluric”.

v2.0.5: M&B I#


Maintenance and small bug fix:

  • Time-domain modelling failed when using DLF for the Fourier transform with pts_per_dec=0 and signal={-1;1} (broadcasting error).

  • RTD fixes & changes and GitHub Action fixes; update year.

v2.0.4: Move to EMSiG#


Small maintenance release:

  • Update to

  • Moved from Travis CI to GitHub Actions.

v2.0.2: Fix example: tem_walktem#


  • Fix example tem_walktem, related to changes in scipy.quadrature: Replace not-existing private name scipy.integrate.quadrature._cached_roots_legendre with the public name scipy.special.roots_legendre.

  • As a consequence of the above, changed in empymod the used, old name scipy.special.p_roots by new, more descriptive name scipy.special.roots_legendre.

  • Improve publications-section in the example gallery.

  • Change error reporting to native (instead of print(bla) and raise Error do raise Error(bla)); improve corresponding error testing by checking the error message too.

v2.0.1: Bug fixes: ftarg, docs, CI, req#


  • Bugfix that using ftarg returned from utils.check_time as input for the same utils.check_time does not throw a warning in the case of fftlog and qwe.

  • Various micro-improvements and simplifications with regards to the documentation, testing, and requirement specifications.

v2.0.0: Numba#


This version is backwards incompatible and requires Python 3.6+.

  • Numba:

    • Using numexpr is no longer a possibility. Instead, numba is a new dependency. All four kernel routines (wavenumber, greenfct, reflections, and fields) are now numba-jitted functions.

  • Removed:

    • Removed all deprecated functions.

    • Dropped support for Python 3.5; moved to f-strings.

    • Dropped testing for channel conda-forge. The problems encountered at the early development cycle of empymod with conda-forge do not exist any longer.

  • New defaults:

    • EMArray: .amp and .pha are now methods, not properties. Phase takes three optional boolean parameters deg=False, unwrap=True, and lag=True, to get radians or degrees; unwrapped or not; and lag or lead defined phases.

    • The parameters epermV and mpermV are set to the values of epermH and mpermH, respectively, if not provided (hence assuming isotropic behaviour). Before they were set to ones if not provided.

  • Renaming:

    • transform.fht -> transform.hankel_dlf

    • transform.hqwe -> transform.hankel_qwe

    • transform.hquad -> transform.hankel_quad

    • transform.ffht -> transform.fourier_dlf

    • transform.fqwe -> transform.fourier_qwe

    • transform.fftlog -> transform.fourier_fftlog

    • transform.fft -> transform.fourier_fft

    • transform.fhti -> transform.get_fftlog_input

    • transform.get_spline_values -> transform.get_dlf_points.

    • factAng -> ang_fact

    • In htarg-dict: fftfilt-> dlf (filter name for Hankel-DLF)

    • In ftarg-dict: fhtfilt-> dlf (filter name for Fourier-DLF)

    • In ftarg-dict: ft-> kind (method in Fourier-DLF [sine/cosine])

    • Only dictionaries allowed for htarg and ftarg; strings, lists, or tuples are not allowed any longer. They are also dictionaries internally now.

    • ht: There is only one unique name for each method: ‘dlf’, ‘qwe’, ‘quad’.

    • ft: There is only one unique name for each method: ‘dlf’, ‘qwe’, ‘fftlog’, ‘fft’.

    • Within transform, change fhtarg, qweargs, and quadargs to htarg; qweargs to ftarg.

  • Other changes:

    • All settings (xdirect, ht, htarg, ft, ftarg, loop, verb) are now extracted from kwargs. This makes it possible that all model-functions take the same keyword-arguments; warnings are raised if a particular parameter is not used in this function, but it doesn’t fail (it fails, however, for unknown parameters). Pure positional calls including those parameters will therefore not work any longer.

    • Undo a change introduced in v1.8.0: get_dlf_points is calculated directly within transform.fht [empymod#26].

    • Ensured that source and receiver inputs are not altered.

    • Significantly reduced top namespace; only functions from model are loaded into the top namespace now.

Version 1#


v1.10.6: Various azimuths and dips at same depth#


  • empymod.bipole

    • In the source and receiver format [x, y, z, azimuth, dip], azimuth and dip can now be either single values, or the same number as the other coordinates.

    • Bugfix (in utils.get_abs): When different orientations were used exactly along the principal axes, at the same depth, only the first source was calculated [empymod#74].

v1.10.5: Continuously in- or decreasing#


This is a small appendix to v1.10.4: Depths can now be defined in increasing or decreasing order, as long as they are consistent. Model parameters have to be defined in the same order. Hence all these are possible:

  • [-100, 0, 1000, 1050] -> left-handed system, low-to-high

  • [100, 0, -1000, -1050] -> right-handed system, high-to-low

  • [1050, 1000, 0, -100] -> left-handed system, high-to-low

  • [-1050, -1000, 0, 100] -> right-handed system, low-to-high

v1.10.4: Positive z down- or upwards#


  • New examples:

    • empymod can handle positive z down- or upwards (left-handed or right-handed coordinate systems; it was always possible, but not known nor documented). Adjusted documentation, docstrings, and added an example.

    • Example how to calculate the responses for the WalkTEM system.

  • Minor things and bug fixes:

    • Change from relative to absolute imports.

    • Simplified releasing (no badges).

    • Python 3.8 is tested.

    • Fix: numpy now throws an error if the third argument of logspace is not an int, some casting was therefore necessary within the code.

v1.10.2: Always EMArray#


  • Simplified and improved empymod.utils.EMArray. Now every returned array from the main modelling routines bipole, dipole, loop, and analytical is an EMArray with .amp- and .pha-attributes.

  • Theme and documentation reworked, to be more streamlined with emg3d (for easier long-term maintenance).

  • Travis now checks all the url’s in the documentation, so there should be no broken links down the road. (Check is allowed to fail, it is visual QC.)

  • Fixes to the setuptools_scm-implementation (

  • ROADMAP.rst moved to GitHub-Projects; MAINTENANCE.rst included in manual.

v1.10.1: setuptools_scm#


  • Typos from v1.10.0; update example in model.loop.

  • Implement setuptools_scm for versioning (adds git hashes for dev-versions).

v1.10.0: Loop source and receiver#


  • New modelling routine model.loop to model the electromagnetic frequency- or time-domain field due to an arbitrary rotated, magnetic source consisting of an electric loop, measured by arbitrary rotated, finite electric or magnetic bipole receivers or arbitrary rotated magnetic receivers consisting of electric loops.

  • Move copyright from «Dieter Werthmüller» to «The empymod Developers», to be more inclusive and open the project for new contributors.


v1.9.0 : Laplace#


  • Laplace-domain calculation: By providing a negative freq-value, the calculation is carried out in the real Laplace domain s = freq instead of the complex frequency domain s = 2i*pi*freq.

  • Improvements to filter design and handling:

    • DigitalFilter now takes an argument (list of strings) for additional coefficients to the default j0, j1, sin, and cos.

    • fdesign can now be used with any name as attribute you want to describe the transform pair (until now it had to be either j0, j1, j2, sin, or cos).

    • The provided sine and cosine transform pairs in fdesign can now be asked to return the inverse pair (time to frequency).

  • Other tiny improvements and bug fixes.


v1.8.3 : Scooby#


  • Use scooby for Versions (printinfo), change name to Report.

  • DOC: Correct return statement if mrec=True.

  • Typos and correct links for new asv/bench.

  • Bump requirement to SciPy>=1.0.0, remove warning regarding memory leak in SciPy 0.19.0.

v1.8.2 : pts_per_dec for DLF are now floats#


  • pts_per_dec are now floats, not integers, which gives more flexibility.

  • Bugfix: pts_per_dec for DLF was actually points per e, not per decade, as the natural logarithm was used.

  • New Versions-class; improvement over the versions-function, as it automatically detects if it can print html or not.

  • Maintenance: Update np.load in tests with allow_pickle=True for changes in numpy v1.16.3.

  • Lots of changes to accommodate emg3d within the empymod-org:

    • Adjust website, move stuff from website into

    • /empymod/example-notebooks -> /empymod/empymod-examples.

    • /empymod/asv -> /empymod/empymod-asv (and therefore now available at

    • /empymod/bench -> /empymod/empymod-bench.

  • Move manual from empymod/ to the docs/manual.rst, and the references to its own file. Change reference style.

  • Move credits for initial funding from the license-section of the manual to CREDITS.rst, where it belongs.

v1.8.1 : Version of Filter-article and CSEM-book#


  • Many little improvements in the documentation.

  • Some code improvements through the use of codacy.

  • Remove testing of Python 3.4; officially supported are now Python 3.5-3.7.

  • Version of the filter article (DLF) in geophysics and of the CSEM book.

v1.8.0 : Hook for Cole-Cole IP and similar#


  • model.bipole, model.dipole, and model.analytical have now a hook which users can exploit to insert their own calculation of etaH, etaV, zetaH, and zetaV. This can be used, for instance, to model a Cole-Cole IP survey. See the manual or the example-notebooks for more information.

  • model.wavenumber renamed to model.dipole_k to avoid name clash with kernel.wavenumber. For now model.wavenumber continues to exist, but raises a deprecation warning.

  • xdirect default value changed from True to False.

  • Possibility to provide interpolated points (int_pts) to transform.dlf.

The following changes are backwards incompatible if you directly used transform.fht, transform.hqwe, or transform.hquad. Nothing changes for the user-facing routines in model:

  • empymod.fem now passes factAng to empymod.transform, not angle; this saves some time if looped over offsets or frequencies, as it is not repeatedly calculated within empymod.transform.

  • Use get_spline_values in empymod.fem for Hankel DLF, instead of in empymod.fht. Gives a speed-up if looped over offsets or frequencies. Should be in utils, but that would be heavily backwards incompatible. Move there in version 2.0.


v1.7.3 : Speed improvements following benchmarks#


  • Small improvements related to speed as a result of the benchmarks introduced in v1.7.2:

    • Kernels which do not exist for a given ab are now returned as None from kernel.wavenumber instead of arrays of zeroes. This permits for some time saving in the transforms. This change is backwards incompatible if you directly used kernel.wavenumber. Nothing changes for the user-facing routines in model.

    • Adjustments in transform with regard to the None returned by kernel.wavenumber. The kernels are not checked anymore if they are all zeroes (which can be slow for big arrays). If they are not None, they will be processed.

    • Various small improvements for speed to transform.dlf (i.e. factAng; log10/log; re-arranging).

v1.7.2 : Benchmarked with asv#


  • Benchmarks: empymod has now a benchmark suite, see emsig/empymod-asv.

  • Fixed a bug in bipole for time-domain responses with several receivers or sources with different depths. (Simply failed, as wrong dimension was provided to tem).

  • Small improvements:

    • Various simplifications or cleaning of the code base.

    • Small change (for speed) in check if kernels are empty in transform.dlf and transform.qwe.

v1.7.1 : Load/save filters in plain text#


  • New routines in empymod.filters.DigitalFilter: Filters can now be saved to or loaded from pure ascii-files.

  • Filters and inversion result from empymod.scripts.fdesign are now by default saved in plain text. The filters with their internal routine, the inversion result with np.savetxt. Compressed saving can be achieved by giving a name with a ‘.gz’-ending.

  • Change in empymod.utils:

    • Renamed _min_param to _min_res.

    • Anisotropy aniso is no longer directly checked for its minimum value. Instead, res*aniso**2, hence vertical resistivity, is checked with _min_res, and anisotropy is subsequently re-calculated from it.

    • The parameters epermH, epermV, mpermH, and mpermV can now be set to 0 (or any positive value) and do not depend on _min_param.

  • printinfo: Generally improved; prints now MKL-info (if available) independently of numexpr.

  • Simplification of kernel.reflections through re-arranging.

  • Bug fixes

  • Version of re-submission of the DLF article to geophysics.

v1.7.0 : Move empyscripts into empymod.scripts#


Merge empyscripts into empymod under empymod.scripts.

  • Clear separation between mandatory and optional imports:

    • Mandatory:

      • numpy

      • scipy

    • Optional:

      • numexpr (for empymod.kernel)

      • matplotlib (for empymod.scripts.fdesign)

      • IPython (for empymod.scripts.printinfo)

  • Broaden namespace of empymod. All public functions from the various modules and the modules from empymod.scripts are now available under empymod directly.


v1.6.2 : Speed improvements for QUAD/QWE#


These changes should make calculations using QWE and QUAD for the Hankel transform for cases which do not require all kernels faster; sometimes as much as twice as fast. However, it might make calculations which do require all kernels a tad slower, as more checks had to be included. (Related to [empymod#11]; basically including for QWE and QUAD what was included for DLF in version 1.6.0.)

  • transform:

    • dlf:

      • Improved by avoiding unnecessary multiplications/summations for empty kernels and applying the angle factor only if it is not 1.

      • Empty/unused kernels can now be input as None, e.g. signal=(PJ0, None, None).

      • factAng is new optional for the Hankel transform, as is ab.

    • hqwe: Avoids unnecessary calculations for zero kernels, improving speed for these cases.

    • hquad, quad: Avoids unnecessary calculations for zero kernels, improving speed for these cases.

  • kernel:

    • Simplify wavenumber

    • Simplify angle_factor

v1.6.1 : Primary/secondary field#


Secondary field calculation.

  • Add the possibility to calculate secondary fields only (excluding the direct field) by passing the argument xdirect=None. The complete xdirect-signature is now (only affects calculation if src and rec are in the same layer):

    • If True, direct field is calculated analytically in the frequency domain.

    • If False, direct field is calculated in the wavenumber domain.

    • If None, direct field is excluded from the calculation, and only reflected fields are returned (secondary field).

  • Bugfix in model.analytical for ab=[36, 63] (zeroes) [empymod#16].

v1.6.0 : More DLF improvements#


This release is not completely backwards compatible for the main modelling routines in empymod.model, but almost. Read below to see which functions are affected.

  • Improved Hankel DLF [empymod#11]. empymod.kernel.wavenumber always returns three kernels, PJ0, PJ1, and PJ0b. The first one is angle-independent, the latter two depend on the angle. Now, depending of what source-receiver configuration is chosen, some of these might be zero. If-statements were now included to avoid the calculation of the DLF, interpolation, and reshaping for 0-kernels, which improves speed for these cases.

  • Unified DLF arguments [empymod#10].

    These changes are backwards compatible for all main modelling routines in empymod.model. However, they are not backwards compatible for the following routines:

    • empymod.model.fem (removed use_spline),

    • empymod.transform.fht (removed use_spline),

    • empymod.transform.hqwe (removed use_spline),

    • empymod.transform.quad (removed use_spline),

    • empymod.transform.dlf (lagged, splined => pts_per_dec),

    • empymod.utils.check_opt (no longer returns use_spline),

    • empymod.utils.check_hankel (changes in pts_per_dec), and

    • empymod.utils.check_time (changes in pts_per_dec).

    The function empymod.utils.spline_backwards_hankel can be used for backwards compatibility.

    Now the Hankel and Fourier DLF have the same behaviour for pts_per_dec:

    • pts_per_dec = 0: Standard DLF,

    • pts_per_dec < 0: Lagged Convolution DLF, and

    • pts_per_dec > 0: Splined DLF.

    There is one exception which is not backwards compatible: Before, if opt=None and htarg={pts_per_dec: != 0}, the pts_per_dec was not used for the FHT and the QWE. New, this will be used according to the above definitions.

  • Bugfix in model.wavenumber for ab=[36, 63] (zeroes).


v1.5.2 : Improved DLF#


  • DLF improvements:

    • Digital linear filter (DLF) method for the Fourier transform can now be carried out without spline, providing 0 for pts_per_dec (or any integer smaller than 1).

    • Combine kernel from fht and ffht into dlf, hence separate DLF from other calculations, as is done with QWE (qwe for hqwe and fqwe).

    • Bug fix regarding transform.get_spline_values; a DLF with pts_per_dec can now be shorter then the corresponding filter.

v1.5.1 : Improved docs#


  • Documentation:

    • Simplifications: avoid duplication as much as possible between the website (, the manual (, and the README (

      • Website has now only Features and Installation in full, all other information comes in the form of links.

      • README has only information in the form of links.

      • Manual contains the README, and is basically the main document for all information.

    • Improvements: Change some remaining md-syntax to rst-syntax.

    • FHT -> DLF: replace FHT as much as possible, without breaking backwards compatibility.

v1.5.0 : Hankel filter wer_201_2018#


  • Minimum parameter values can now be set and verified with utils.set_minimum and utils.get_minimum.

  • New Hankel filter wer_201_2018.

  • opt=parallel has no effect if numexpr is not built against Intel’s VML. (Use import numexpr; numexpr.use_vml to see if your numexpr uses VML.)

  • Bug fixes

  • Version of manuscript submission to geophysics for the DLF article.


v1.4.4 : TE/TM split#


[This was meant to be 1.4.3, but due to a setup/pypi/anaconda-issue I had to push it to 1.4.4; so there isn’t really a version 1.4.3.]

  • Add TE/TM split to diffusive ee-halfspace solution.

  • Improve kernel.wavenumber for fullspaces.

  • Extended fQWE and fftlog to be able to use the cosine-transform. Now the cosine-transform with the real-part frequency response is used internally if a switch-off response (signal=-1) is required, rather than calculating the switch-on response (with sine-transform and imaginary-part frequency response) and subtracting it from the DC value.

  • Bug fixes

v1.4.2 : Final submission version of Geophysics paper#


  • Bugfix: Fixed squeeze in model.analytical with solution='dsplit'.

  • Version of final submission of manuscript to Geophysics.

v1.4.1 : Own organisation


[This was meant to be 1.4.0, but due to a setup/pypi/anaconda-issue I had to push it to 1.4.1; so there isn’t really a version 1.4.0.]

  • New home: as entry point, and the project page on All empymod-repos moved to the new home.

    • /prisae/empymod -> /empymod/empymod

    • /prisae/empymod-notebooks -> /empymod/example-notebooks

    • /prisae/empymod-geo2017 -> /empymod/article-geo2017

    • /prisae/empymod-tle2017 -> /empymod/article-tle2017

  • Modelling routines:

    • New modelling routine model.analytical, which serves as a front-end to kernel.fullspace or kernel.halfspace.

    • Remove legacy routines model.time and model.frequency. They are covered perfectly by model.dipole.

    • Improved switch-off response (calculate and subtract from DC).

    • xdirect adjustments:

      • isfullspace now respects xdirect.

      • Removed xdirect from model.wavenumber (set to False).

  • Kernel:

    • Modify kernel.halfspace to use same input as other kernel functions.

    • Include time-domain ee halfspace solution into kernel.halfspace; possible to obtain direct, reflected, and airwave separately, as well as only fullspace solution (all for the diffusive approximation).


v1.3.0 : New transforms QUAD (Hankel) and FFT (Fourier)#


  • Add additional transforms and improve QWE:

    • Conventional adaptive quadrature (QUADPACK) for the Hankel transform;

    • Conventional FFT for the Fourier transform.

    • Add diff_quad to htarg/ftarg of QWE, a switch parameter for QWE/QUAD.

    • Change QWE/QUAD switch from comparing first interval to comparing all intervals.

    • Add parameters for QUAD (a, b, limit) into htarg/ftarg for QWE.

  • Allow htarg/ftarg as dict additionally to list/tuple.

  • Improve model.gpr.

  • Internal changes:

    • Rename internally the sine/cosine filter from fft to ffht, because of the addition of the Fast Fourier Transform fft.

  • Clean-up repository

    • Move notebooks to /prisae/empymod-notebooks

    • Move publications/Geophysics2017 to /prisae/empymod-geo2017

    • Move publications/TheLeadingEdge2017 to /prisae/empymod-tle2017

  • Bug fixes and documentation improvements


v1.2.1 : Installable via pip and conda#


  • Change default filter from key_401_2009 to key_201_2009 (because of warning regarding 401 pt filter in source code of DIPOLE1D.)

  • Since 06/02/2017 installable via pip/conda.

  • Bug fixes

v1.2.0 : Bipole#


  • New routine:

    • General modelling routine bipole (replaces srcbipole): Model the EM field for arbitrarily oriented, finite length bipole sources and receivers.

  • Added a test suite:

    • Unit-tests of small functions.

    • Framework-tests of the bigger functions:

      • Comparing to status quo (regression tests),

      • Comparing to known analytical solutions,

      • Comparing different options to each other,

      • Comparing to other 1D modellers (EMmod, DIPOLE1D, GREEN3D).

    • Incorporated with Travis CI and Coveralls.

  • Internal changes:

    • Add kernel count (printed if verb > 1).

    • numexpr is now only required if opt=='parallel'. If numexpr is not found, opt is reset to None and a warning is printed.

    • Cleaned-up wavenumber-domain routine.

    • theta/phi -> azimuth/dip; easier to understand.

    • Refined verbosity levels.

    • Lots of changes in utils, with regards to the new routine bipole and with regards to verbosity. Moved all warnings out from transform and model into utils.

  • Bug fixes


v1.1.0 : Include source bipole#


  • New routines:

    • New srcbipole modelling routine: Model an arbitrarily oriented, finite length bipole source.

    • Merge frequency and time into dipole. (frequency and time are still available.)

    • dipole now supports multiple sources.

  • Internal changes:

    • Replace get_Gauss_Weights with scipy.special.p_roots

    • jv(0,x), jv(1,x) -> j0(x), j1(x)

    • Replace param_shape in utils with _check_var and _check_shape.

    • Replace xco and yco by angle in kernel.fullspace

    • Replace fftlog with python version.

    • Additional sine-/cosine-filters: key_81_CosSin_2009, key_241_CosSin_2009, and key_601_CosSin_2009.

  • Bug fixes


v1.0.0 : Initial release#


  • Initial release; state of manuscript submission to geophysics.